Chromium is a mineral our bodies use in small amounts for normal body functions, such as digesting food. Chromium exists in many natural foods including brewer’s yeast, meats, potatoes (especially the skins), cheeses, molasses, spices, whole-grain breads and cereals, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Drinking hard tap water supplies chromium to the body, and cooking in stainless-steel cookware increases the chromium content in foods.
You can buy chromium supplements alone in tablets or capsules or as part of a multivitamin. But because the human body needs very little chromium, most people get enough in their regular diet and do not require dietary supplements. Those at risk for chromium deficiency include people with diabetes and the elderly.
The best source of chromium is brewer's yeast, but many people do not use brewer's yeast because it causes abdominal distention (a bloated feeling) and nausea.
Other good sources of chromium include the following:
Black pepper, butter, and molasses are also good sources of chromium, but they are normally consumed only in small amounts.
Chromium used for
Chromium helps to move blood sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream into the cells to be used as energy and to turn fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into energy.
Chromium may help some people with type 2 diabetes. It may help them control their blood sugar and may play a role in the management of type 2 diabetes. But more studies are needed to know how well it really works.
Low chromium levels may cause high cholesterol and may increase your risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Supplemental chromium may increase "good" (HDL) cholesterol and lower triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in people with high blood sugar and diabetes. But more studies are needed to know how well it really works.
Chromium supplements are promoted as being helpful in building muscle and burning fat and in helping the body use carbohydrates. But this has not been proved.
Chromium may affect the eyes. There is a link between low chromium levels and increased risk of glaucoma.
Chromium slows the loss of calcium, so it may help prevent bone loss in women during menopause.
- Males age 14 -50: 35 mcg/day
- Males age 51 and over: 30 mcg/day
- Females age 14 - 18: 24 mcg/day
- Females age 19 - 50: 25 mcg/day
- Females age 51 and older: 20 mcg/day
The chromium found in foods will not hurt you. But taking excessive chromium supplements can lead to stomach problems and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Too much chromium from supplements can also damage the liver, kidneys, and nerves, and it may cause irregular heart rhythm. But side effects from taking chromium supplements are rare.
Antacids (including calcium carbonate) interfere with the absorption of chromium.
Being exposed to high levels of chromium on the job (such as in metallurgy and electroplating) has been linked not only to kidney damage but also to lung and other cancers as well as skin conditions such as eczema and other inflammations of the skin.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements in the same way it regulates medicines. A dietary supplement can be sold with limited or no research on how well it works or on its safety.
Chromium deficiency may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. It is seen in older people with type 2 diabetes and in infants with protein-calorie malnutrition. Supplementation of chromium helps with management of these conditions, but it is not a substitute for other treatment.
Like conventional medicines, dietary supplements may cause side effects, trigger allergic reactions, or interact with prescription and nonprescription medicines or other supplements you might be taking. A side effect or interaction with another medicine or supplement may make other health conditions worse.
Because of the low absorption and high excretion rates of chromium, toxicity is not common.